Country profile - Vietnam


At the end of June 2022, 281,810 Vietnamese-born people were living in Australia, 32.8 per cent more than the number (212,140) at 30 June 2012. This makes the Vietna​mese-born population the sixth largest migrant community in Australia, equivalent to 3.7 per cent of Australia's overseas-born population and 1.1 per cent of Australia's total population.

For Australia's Vietnamese-born migrants:

  • The median age of 48.1years was 9.6 years above that of the general population.
  • Females outnumbered males—56.1 per cent compared with 43.9 per cent.

(Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australia’s Population by Country of Birth)

Permanent migration

Australia's permanent Migration Program incorporates economic and family migration and is the main pathway to permanent residence. It includes the Skill stream, Family stream and Special Eligibility visas. The only other way to obtain permanent residence is on humanitarian grounds.

Skill stream visas

The Skill stream is designed for workers who have the skills, qualifications and entrepreneurship most needed in the Australian economy. There are seven components:

  1. Business Innovation and Investment

  2. Distinguished Talent

  3. Employer Sponsored

  4. Global Talent (Independent)

  5. Regional

  6. Skilled Independent

  7. State/Territory Nominated.

Family and Child stream visas

The Family stream allows the permanent migration of close family members, of Australian citizens, permanent residents, and eligible New Zealand citizens. It focuses on partners and parents, but also provides the opportunity for additional family members, such as aged dependent relatives, carers, remaining relatives and orphan relatives, to join their family in Australia.

Child visas allow the permanent migration of children, of Australian citizens, permanent residents, and eligible New Zealand citizens. The Child visa comprises two categories, namely Child and Adoption visas.

Special Eligibility visas

Special Eligibility visas allow former residents and certain people who served in the Australian Defence Force to live in Australia as permanent residents.

The following table shows the size of permanent migration from Vietnam by migration category.

Table 1: Permanent migrant places granted, 2019–20 to 2022–23
Migration category2019–202020–212021–222022–23
Business Innovation and Investment3681,1441,339463
Employer Sponsored569410821723
Skilled Independent1568227473
State/Territory Nominated702433612708
Regional 1669343481529
Global Talent (Independent) 2107325247204


All other categories582634544969
Total places granted 5,398 8,120 6,492 6,571
Source: Department of Home Affairs
1The Regional migration category commenced 1 July 2019.
2Global Talent (Independent) category commenced 4 November 2019.

Temporary migration

People can come to Australia for a temporary stay for a range of purposes, for example, visiting Australia for tourism or attending a conference, or for more specific purposes, such as medical treatment, study, skilled work, working holidays or other specialist activities. There are six main categories of temporary residents, which can cover stays of more than three months in Australia.

Note: Not all categories apply to migrants from each country.

Visitor visas

Visitor visas are mostly used by people visiting Australia for holidays, tourism and recreation, or to see family and friends. People may also use Visitor visas for certain short-term business activities that do not entail working in Australia.

Working Holiday Maker Program

The Working Holiday Maker Program allows young adults to have an extended holiday and engage in short-term work and study.

Student visa

The Student visa program enables international students to come to Australia to study full-time in a registered course.

Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visa

Allows a business to sponsor a skilled overseas worker if they cannot find an appropriately skilled Australian citizen or permanent resident to fill a skilled position.

Other temporary visas

Other temporary visas include visas that allow people to undertake short-term, non-ongoing highly specialised work, enrich social and cultural development, strengthen international relations or provide training opportunities of benefit to Australia.

New Zealand citizens

Under the 1973 Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, New Zealand citizens can enter and leave Australia freely and live in Australia indefinitely on grant of a Special Category visa (subclass 444).

The following table shows the number of visa grants to migrants from Vietnam, for Visitor, Student, Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) and Working Holiday Maker visas.

Table 2: Temporary visas granted by selected categories, 2019–20 to 2022–23
Temporary visa category2019–202020–212021–222022–23
Special Category10,7066,7769,24318,814
Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment)9223811,9453,986
Other temporary visa grants 12,9522,5562,8229,037
Total temporary visa grants 71,287 16,302 40,253 146,847
Source: Department of Home Affairs
1Excludes Transit visa (subclass 771), Border visa (subclass 773) and Maritime Crew visa (subclass 988).

Main occupations

The following table shows the main occupations for nationals of Vietnam, based on Skill stream migration outcomes and Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visa grants.

Table 3: Main occupations, 2019–20 to 2022–23
PeriodTemporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visasNo. of migrants Skill stream migrationNo. of migrants
2022–23Bakers and pastrycooks76Registered nurses245
 Software and applications programmers58Early childhood (pre-primary school) teachers68
 Accountants44Software and applications programmers61
 Cafe and restaurant managers15Secondary school teachers40
 Auditors, company secretaries and corporate treasurers14University lecturers and tutors39
 Advertising, public relations and sales managers14Cafe and restaurant managers35
 Civil engineering professionals14Civil engineering professionals34
 Ministers of religion12Cooks32
2021–22Accountants62Auditors, company secretaries and corporate treasurers190
 Chefs54ICT business and systems analysts87
 Software and applications programmers51Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists79
 Bakers and pastrycooks42Cooks51
 Cooks33Hotel and motel managers36
 Auditors, company secretaries and corporate treasurers12Electrical engineers31
 ICT business and systems analysts9Animal attendants and trainers27
 Management and organisation analysts8Primary school teachers25
 Mechanical engineering draftspersons and technicians8Welfare, recreation and community arts workers21
 Cafe and restaurant managers7Civil engineering professional19
2020–21Bakers and pastrycooks36Accountants110
 Software and applications programmers24Software and applications programmers70
 Cooks23Registered nurses49
 Accountants19Civil engineering professionals28
 Chefs18Bakers and pastrycooks21
 Other personal service workers11Medical laboratory scientists20
 Cafe and restaurant managers10ICT business and systems analysts20
 Advertising and marketing professionals5Chefs20
 ICT business and systems analysts5Cafe and restaurant managers13
 Actuaries, mathematicians and statisticians<5University lecturers and tutors13
2019–20Software and applications programmers35Accountants172
 Bakers and pastrycooks30Registered nurses86
 Cook24Software and applications programmers56
 University lecturers and tutors14Cooks49
 Cafe and restaurant managers13Cafe and restaurant managers44
 Chefs13Bakers and pastrycooks41
 Accountants11Civil engineering professionals27
 Ministers of religion9Chefs25
 Other personal service workers9University lecturers and tutors22
 Management and organisation analysts8Agricultural and forestry scientists21
Source: Department of Home Affairs
Note: To protect the privacy of individuals, various data confidentiality techniques have been applied. These techniques include, data masking — using primary and secondary suppression methods for values that are deemed to be a disclosure risk and perturbation — a data security technique that allows for random data adjustment to prevent the release of identifiable data.
Note: Occupation level information is available for primary applicants only, and is based on Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations unit level data.

Geographic distribution

The following table shows the geographic distribution of migrants, based on permanent additions for the Skill and Family streams, international student visa grants, and Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visa grants. 

Table 4: Geographic distribution
Census 2021 (%)
Of all persons322620710212
Of Vietnamese-born3836977112
Permanent additions - 2022–​23 (%)
Skill stream262911158534
Family and Child stream4040846011
Temporary visa grants - 2022–23 (%)
International student visa grants33389115112
Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visa (primary) grants35351449022
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics and Department of Home Affairs
Note: Permanent additions consist of two components; those persons who, while already in Australia on a temporary basis, are granted permanent residence status or those persons who have subsequently arrived from overseas during the reporting period and are entitled to stay permanently in Australia.

Country ranking

This table uses rankings to show the significance of Vietnamese migration for the past four financial years.

Table 5: Country ranking, 2019–20 to 2022–23
Ranked position of migrants2019–202020–212021–222022–23
Population in Australia 16666
Employer Sponsored1314611
Total Skill stream98711
Total Family and Child stream4554
International students6649
Temporary Resident (Skilled Employment) visa17181415
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics and Department of Home Affairs
1Population level data is by country of birth and lags one year behind the financial year specified. Data based on the estimated residential population at 30 June; 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022.
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